According to the available data from national surveys between the years of and , more than 16 million Americans over the age of 12 have used METH [ 23 ].
Animal models are often used to examine the effects of different concentrations of alcohol on behavioral responses.
Alcohol use with other drugs of abuse has been reported to hinder decision making, thinking, and neurocognitive capabilities [ 10 — 15 ].
Acute alcohol exposure can be used to examine alcohol intoxication in humans, and also how it may lead to the development of addiction.
Co-abuse of alcohol with psychostimulants can lead to several neurophysiological dysfunctions such as decrease in brain antioxidant enzymes, disruption of learning and memory processes, cerebral hypo-perfusion, neurotransmitters depletion as well as potentiation of drug seeking behaviour.