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We found we didn’t need that modality; by using the right dyes we are able to get signal to noise with the TIRF system and single dyes.

What we’ve learned is that with TIRF and enough light, and we put a lot of laser flux into the system, we can get substantial signal. First of all, TIRF optically reduces the noise substantially.

So during 30 cycles of single base addition, whether at step 1, or step 120, the signal to noise is constant because we’re always measuring a binary event; is the dye present or not?

The huge advantage against the amplified, or think of them as “ensemble technologies”, is that even though you lose yield in a single molecule approach, you literally lose the signal in an ensemble approach.

He earned his BA in Biology from Merrimack College.