The AAS is a five-item measure scored on a yes/no scale, with positive responses to any question denoting abuse.
A 2016 meta-analysis indicated that the only risk factors for the perpetration of intimate partner violence that differ by gender are witnessing intimate partner violence as a child, alcohol use, male demand, and female withdrawal communication patterns.
A 2008 systematic review published in journal of Violence and Victims found that despite less serious altercation or violence being equal among both genders, more serious and violent abuse was perpetrated by men.
The first type includes people with general psychopathic and violent tendencies.
The second type includes people who are emotionally dependent on the relationship.
If the abuse is more severe, it is more likely to have chronic effects on victims because the long-term effects of abuse tend to be cumulative.